Wednesday, November 27, 2019


6 Introduction Some of the most interesting aspects of child development are the biosocial, cognitive and psychological development.Reading these aspects can be interesting, especially if you have a child who is still developing. In order to understand these aspects fully, scientists have come up with numerous theories to explain the development stages right from birth to adulthood.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on 6-year-old childs biosocial, cognitive and psychosocial development specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although some people have widely criticized some of the theories, the truth of the matter is they address the various development stages we take the general based model to address the biosocial, cognitive, and psychological development of a six-year-old child. In trying to address these three paramount issues, the paper takes note of the extensive variations in what very many child development experts con sider as â€Å"normal†. Some of the factors behind child development include family, cognitive, educational, and genetic. Depending on the suitability of these factors, children will reach certain stages at different times. However, this paper discusses development stages of a normal six-year-old child. This is simply because every child is unique and therefore, the development stages can vary with time and other factors (Rollercoaster, 2012, p.1). Six-year-old child In very many developed countries, six-year-old kids are conversant with school and kindergarten related activities. In other words, a child develops aggression towards independence in this year. However, the idea to separate from their parents is not something that they are in apposition to do no matter how independent they want to be. These kids are taking steps towards discovering the world they found themselves in some years ago. The truth of the matter is that not all six-year-old children share similar abili ties and development traits. They can actually vary form one child to another due to their uniqueness. At this age, the kids have different preferences, experiences, and each one of them is capable of things in certain ways. This is the reason why their abilities are not the same. Although each kid is unique, we assume a general milestone in addressing the similarities in the development stages of all six-year-old kids (Ruben, Fein Vandenberg, 1983, pp. 690-698). As seen above, one of the most significant things to note about six-year-old kids id their increased aggression towards routines and independence. This does not necessarily mean that they want to leave their parents and become independent. In most cases, these kids spend most of their time in school, and away from their parents. In school, these kids participate in various activities, sometimes on their own. Sometimes, they can form groups and play together, or attend parties of their friends. Six-year-old kids also experi ence physical development.Advertising Looking for case study on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the motor skills and the coordination are likely to develop as compared to the rest. Additionally, this is the age when most children develop athletic abilities. You will find many of them playing or running around. The growth rate will vary form one child to another, and that is the main reason why their heights will vary to a certain extent. Experts also argue that six-year-old children always feel insecure when they are far away from the parents or their homes. They therefore crave for relieve and security either at home or from their parents. Other theories also depict that six-year-old children tend to experience an incredible learning augmentation once they enter kindergarten and start handling intricate materials. This is the period they start learning how to read, and some basic math, art, science and history solving skills will start develop (Higgins Parsons, 1983, pp.15-66). Biosocial development The biosocial development of a six-year-old child is also active at this particular age. In most cases, the child starts to develop interaction and other social skills. Friends It is quite amusing to note that these kids tend to emphasis relationships with people outside their homes, for example, teachers and pupils. Even as their aggression towards independence continues, these kids also tend to focus in other areas like forming very many fiends comprising of peers, teachers, and maybe other parents. As time goes by, they find that social interactions with the peers, friends or other people outside the family are complex. Nevertheless, this does not stop them from interacting, as they become increasingly aware on what to do with such friendships. Another positive thing to note about these kids is that at this age, they understand rules better, and majority of them want t o make sure that their friends follow the rules. For instance, if they are playing, they aggravate for organized games, which are devoid of controversy. You will find them forming teams to play each other a soccer match. Gender is also important here. Those of the same gender would always want to play together, and one kid would choose another as the â€Å"best friend†. However, it is imperative for parents to watch the biosocial developments of the six-year-old child lest they develop abnormal behaviors such as hounding, cliques, and banishing others. Otherwise, this is the age when a kid navigates from one relationship to another hoping to find security and comfort (Ruben, Fein Vandenberg, 1983, pp. 702-734). Morals and rules At six years of age, a child becomes increasingly aware of what is right and wrong. You will find many of them reporting or even summoning those who are not doing the right thing. At this age, break-ups among close friends are so common, but the goodn ess is they do not last for long, and you will find them becoming friends almost immediately.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on 6-year-old childs biosocial, cognitive and psychosocial development specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Giving, Sharing and Empathy Having acquired a good number of friends and now playing together, six-year-old kids always like sharing some of the things they own for example, snacks and toys. The truth of the matter is that there is rivalry and scuffling towards picking the best-looking toy or taking many snacks, but as we have seen above, they forget their differences easily. In fact, they can work out their conflicts without the involvement of a teacher or a parent. Perhaps one major thing to note about six-year-old kids is that they are too egotistical, and therefore they need tender support for them to learn the other side of life (Parten, 1932, pp. 243-269). Cognitive development As w e have seen above, six-year-old children have developed learning skills and therefore they are now reedy to enter school. At this age, they could be in kindergarten or in a nursery school. In school, they find a new world that is much different from that in their homes. Story telling, allotment, practical activities, and designing become so common, even as they embark on a journey of discovering what is in the books. They are now ready to learn new skills such as decoding words due to the developed phonemic awareness. Their attention span begins to lengthen, and they become familiar with intricate projects and assignments assigned to them both at schools and home (Parkhurst Asher, 1992, pp. 231-241). Reading and Writing This is the right age when children start learning how to read. In some cases, majority of the children of this age even begin to read on their own. Amazingly, some of them can even begin to write short stories (one paragraph) about their family, friends, or vacatio ns. They are able to identify some words and with time, they break their sound. Since they are still developing cognitively, with time, they become conversant with many vocabularies, and they can spell some words correctly. Children of this age can also identify punctuation marks, and apply capitalization in the sentences they construct. They also like reading simple stories about animals and monsters. Notably, after reading the story, they can re-tell it. Numbers and Math Six-year-old kids can count numbers much easier than they were in a year or two ago. Even as their cognitive skills increase, they will start mastering even higher numbers. Using sticks or other materials, they can add and subtract numbers in a given problem. They enjoy solving puzzles as well (Hagen, (1972, pp.66-78).Advertising Looking for case study on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Concepts Six-year-old kids are good in mastering concepts. For example, they can read the time, and tell all days of the week. By this age, they can say more about the world, name some towns, and even state the day’s weather conditions. We can say that at this age, they are able to differentiate between real and imaginary things. Psychological Development Six-year-old children are also developing psychologically. However, this type of development is in most cases characterized by contradictions. For instance, although they want to be independent, they also feel insecure and would always want to be at home with their parents. Emotional Awareness At this age, this kids experience emotions. Although they are a bit conversant on what to say, they are able to read the emotions of other people. They also remain careful in uttering some critical words so that they do not offend others. Confidence and Insecurity Since they are involved in various activities both at home and school, t hey always crave for recognition and praise. In a way, this boosts their confidence. Parents should also be instrumental in teaching them the lines of confidence. When they feel insecure, they should be encouraged, and it is paramount to mention that these kids dislike criticisms and other negative admonishments. All they need is reaffirming assurance and understanding on the part of friends and parents. Inflexibility and Preferences Six-year-old kids always prefer to do things according to their way. If this does not happen, then they feel dejected. To them some things are good and some are bad. However, parents can educate them on what is good and bad (Rollercoaster, 2012, p.1). Privacy At six years of age, children crave for some form of privacy. For instance, when they are dressing, they hide and they do not want anybody to see them. They also discourage the idea of bathing in front of their parents as well. Astonishingly, these children are also curious, as they want to discove r their gender and sex. They may also start questioning their parents the origin of babies. Reference List Hagen, J. W. (1972). Strategies for remembering. New York: Academic Press. Higgins, E.T. Parsons, J.E. (1983). Social cognition and the social life of the child:  Stages as sub-cultures. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Parkhurst, J.T. Asher, S.R. (1992).Peer rejection in middle school: Subgroup differences in behavior, loneliness, and interpersonal concerns. Developmental Psychology, 28(1), 231–241. Parten, M. (1932). Social participation among preschool children.  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 27, 243–269. Rollercoaster. (2012). Stages of Development. Web. Ruben, K. H., Fein, G. G., Vandenberg, B. (1983). Socialization, personality, and  social development. (4th ed.). New York: Wiley and Sons.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

The words heal Essay Example

The words heal Essay Example The words heal Essay The words heal Essay 1991). And He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant and sat down; and the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on Him. And He began to say to them, Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing (Luke 4:18-21). Luke includes all of the healing events in Mark except Mark 6:45-8:26. The healing ministry of Jesus points to the arrival of the kingdom of God as promised in the Old Testament. Christ healed men not only of bodily diseases but also of demon possession. With the coming of Christ the Satanic powers were subject to His power and spoken word. They glimpse the splendour of Christ the King as He casts out demons. Here is evidence the kingdom has come (Clowes et al, 1817). Jesus trained His disciples, empowered them and sent them out to minister to the needy. His disciples were empowered with Holy Spirit and they went into the cities and towns and proclaim the love of God to the sick, poor and needy. Encourage people to live 3 good and healthy lifestyles in order to keep their health. They also teach and also heal the sick in the name of the God. Without fear of their lives they often go into the foreign countries and do ministerial work. They often adapted to the new environment by adopting their cultures, beliefs and values. By doing so they get acquainted with people concern hence provide better service to them. The Gospel of John has only four examples of Jesus healing ministry even though John was with Jesus during the three year ministry. Jesus healed the royal officials sick son at Capernaum, the cripple who had been helpless for 38 years, the man blind from birth, and  rising of Lazarus from the dead. These miracles were attesting signs pointing to Jesus as the Son of God. (Bosworth, et al, 1973). Therefore many other signs Jesus also performed in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book; but these have been written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing you may have life in His name (John 20:30-31). The healing ministry was a ministry of proclamation of the kingdom of God. The kingdom had arrived with the coming of the King. When Christ returns we will see the consummation of the kingdom of God. There will be the manifestation of the glory of the King and His reign. The healing ministry of Jesus is simply the outworking of His majesty and power. In Matthew 8:16-17, quoting Isaiah 53:4 we see the Suffering Servant of the LORD is fulfilling the Old Testament prophecies by His healing miracles. The healings give evidence that He is the Anointed of the LORD. This is a necessary element of His messianic work. This is why He has the authority to heal on the Sabbath (Borg, Marcus and Wright. 1999). 4 What Jesus began to do in His first coming He continues to do through His Body, the church (Acts 1:1-8). This is the work of the Holy Spirit in the Body. The main emphasis of Acts is on proclamation. The disciples of Jesus went about doing what Jesus was doing by proclaiming the good news of Jesus and calling men to put their faith in the risen Christ. People were healed in the name of Jesus. The apostles Peter and John healed a poor lame beggar. But when Peter saw this, he replied to the people, Men of Israel, why are you amazed at this, or why do you gaze at us, as if by our own power or piety we had made him walk? (Borg et al, 1999). The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the God of our fathers, has glorified His servant  Jesus, the one whom you delivered and disowned in the presence of Pilate, when he had decided to release Him. But you disowned the Holy and Righteous One and asked for a murderer to be granted to you, but put to death the Prince of life, the one whom God raised from the dead, and a fact to which we are witnesses. And on the basis of faith in His name, it is the name of Jesus which has strengthened this man whom you see and know; and the faith which comes through Him has given him this perfect health in the presence of you all (Acts 3:12-16). This is the thrust of the healing done by the apostles in Acts. The stress is upon the  resurrection of Jesus Christ. The risen Christ is doing these things (Acts of the Apostles 1911). The authorities could not silence the apostles. They wouldnt shut up talking about the resurrection of Jesus Christ. And now, Lord, take note of their threats, and grant that Your bond-servants may speak Your word with all confidence, while You extend Your hand to heal, and signs and wonders take place through the name of Your holy servant Jesus (Acts 4:29- 30). Peter healed Aeneas and raised Tabitha from the dead. Philip, the lay evangelist went about preaching the gospel and healing the sick and the unclean spirits. Remember, he was one of the first deacons in Acts 6. The apostle Paul went about preaching and establishing 5 new churches, healed the sick, cast out demons, and raised Eutychus from dead after he went to sleep and fell out a window and died during Pauls sermon. I think it is important to note that Paul says very little about healings in his letters (Acts of the Apostles 1911). In 1 Corinthians 12:9, 28 Paul wrote about the gift of healing. The word healing, literally healings (plural) can refer to various healings such as emotional as well as physical ailments by natural as well as miraculous means. The context determines the interpretation. The context of this passage teaches that not every believer is given all these gifts, and that God is sovereign in His distribution of gifts for the edification of the body (Andrew et al , 1982). The Bible reveals that God not only advocates health, but He actually abhors or hates sickness. Leviticus 21 clearly reveals that God would not allow sickness in His presence, which in those days was in the temple. Now, in New Testament times, our bodies are His temple. According to 1 Corinthians 3:16: â€Å"Don’t you know that you yourselves are God’s  temple and that God’s Spirit lives in you? † If you are sick, the fact that God hates sickness does not mean that you are unworthy or that He hates you. He just hates the sickness that you have, because it is not from Him It is His perfect will to heal you and for you to be in health (3 John 2) (Bosworth et al , 1973). In Old Testament passages such as Deuteronomy chapter 28 where it appears that God is putting sickness on people, Jim Glennon (1980) explains that the nuance of the Hebrew wording shows that because of the people’s disobedience, the text really means that God is â€Å"caused to allow† the sicknesses. Our behaviour can â€Å"cause him to allow† sickness to come upon us, even though it is not His perfect will. For example, suffering from AIDS is not his will, but if man indulges in promiscuous behaviour by his own free will, which God will not 6 violate, God is caused to allow AIDS. Man has brought it upon himself, as did the ancient Israelites. Rebellion against God and His commands can cause him to remove his protective shield over us, such as promised in Psalm 91 and elsewhere, and allow the natural consequences. However, do not despair if you have a disease caused by sin. If you confess your sin to God, His grace and mercy can still provide your forgiveness and healing. Other reasons for sickness are: (1) Some people abuse their bodies, using harmful substances, or not allowing enough rest; (2) excessive stress; and (3) some people do not provide the body with nutritious food, often substituting junk or processed food. Much modern commercial food is deficient in nutrients and contains chemical additives, such as hormones and antibiotics in excessive exposure to meat and dairy products, and  environmental pollutants (Counsels on Health, 1923. ) Also, many people violate God’s food guidelines in the Bible and still expect to remain healthy. Examples are in Leviticus chapter 11, no longer a legal requirement but still the wisdom of God. Paul said, Everything is permissible but not everything is beneficial (1 Corinthians 10:23). God’s law of sowing and reaping always applies, but His grace transcends our past mistakes. Allow God to show you any area that needs attention. When sick people came to Jesus and asked to be healed, He did not reject them nor refer them to the doctors. He did not ask them to make an appointment with Luke because he is a doctor. God uses doctors, who can be especially helpful with things like fractures and wounds. Those in healing ministries usually encourage the sick not to ignore proper medical attention, nor to stop their medications, possibly to protect themselves against lawsuits, but also maybe wisdom in many cases. It is not necessarily a lack of faith to see a doctor, and your healing will be a witness to the doctor of God’s power (The Ministry of Healing, 1905). 7 However, be careful, because doctors’ three main methods slash, burn and poison  often do more harm than good: (1) slash (surgery, often dangerous and mutilating), (2) burn (radiation, with bad side effects) and (3) poison (drugs, most all with bad side effects that you may not be told about). If Jesus tarries, I believe someday current medical practices will be considered primitive and outrageous. More people are refusing these highly invasive and potentially harmful medical procedures and are opting to trust God, and perhaps also using natural alternatives. Even many medical doctors have become disenchanted with the failures of their profession and are turning to alternative (complimentary) medicine. Studies show that doctor and healthcare mistakes are the third leading cause of death in the world, whereas God has never made a mistake. (Jim Glennon ,1980). To conclude, Jesus set a foundation for all of us to follow in our Christian journey. He healed the sick, feed the hungry, and teach the people on how to care for themselves. During his ministry on earth, he had endured many challenges in terms of health. People often coming with all sorts of problem with the hope that he will heal them. He performed miracles and also raised death and gave them the second chance to live. As future nurse of this  country, the challenge is whether we will go and minister to the sick, lame and broken hearted like Jesus did or we will hide our identity as Christ chosen generation to work in his field. 8 Reference Pilch, John J, (1991). Sickness and Healing in Luke’s Acts: The social world of Luke’s Acts. Peabody MA: Hendricksons Publishers. The Acts of the Apostles. (1911). Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association, Borg, Marcus J. , and N. T. Wright. (1999). The Healing of Jesus: Two Visions. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Counsels on Health. (1923. ) Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association,  Davies, Stevan L. , (1995). Jesus the Healer: Possession, Trance and the Origins of Christianity. New York: Continuum Publishing Company. The Ministry of Healing. (1905). Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association, F. F. Bosworth, Fleming H. Revell. , (1973). Christ the Healer. Grand Rapids, MI) The Holy Bible. (1985) . Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association Andrew M and Whitaker H, (1982, Divine Healing. New Kinsington: PA. Jim Glennon (1980). Your Healing is Within You. South Plainfield, NJ: Bridge Publishing. Clowes S and John H, (1817). The Miracles of Jesus Christ. Manchester, UK: J. Gleave.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Life of King Tutankhamun Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The Life of King Tutankhamun - Essay Example Little is known of King Tut beyond his name, age, and the fact that he was a pharaoh king, but there is endless speculation surrounding him. Archaeologists have historically divided into opposing factions, each side failing to utilize hard evidence to support their claims for validity. There are differing opinions on his parentage, claim to the throne, religious beliefs, and most notably - the manner of his death. A careful examination of the clues and research leads to some, not all of the answers. On November 25, 1922 Howard Carter, Egyptologist and Lord Carnarvon accompanied by his daughter, Lady Evelyn Herbert were the first to glimpse into the tomb emblazoned with the name Nebkheprure-Tutankhamen3. After financing a long and expensive archeological dig, it certainly must have been with much relief that Lord Carnarvon breathed in the stale air of the most complete Pharaoh's tomb ever to be discovered. It was a ground-breaking discovery that owed much to the obscurity of King Tut's life. His tomb, once sealed was forgotten, placed beneath Ramses VI's tomb in an obscure corner of the Valley of the Kings4. At one time, workmen from the XX dynasty were housed in the shifting sands about King Tut's tomb5 proving that his existence was all but wiped away. Slightly more obscure than the location of his final resting p... At one time, workmen from the XX dynasty were housed in the shifting sands about King Tut's tomb5 proving that his existence was all but wiped away. Slightly more obscure than the location of his final resting place is the origin of Tutankhamen himself. The great uncertainties surrounding Tutankhamen are his obscure parentage and the manner of his death. His parentage is never clearly agreed upon because it is never clearly stated. King Tut's birth can be traced to the years between 34 and 35 of Amenophis III's reign6 and dating of the mummified remains assist in knowing how old King Tut was when he died7. This knowledge is useful in attempting to discover the identity of his parents. At the time of the reign of his predecessor Akhenaten, who was the leader of a great religious usurping records on the princes were not kept. Only the princesses were acknowledged in accordance with the beliefs of Aten, the chosen god of Akhenaten.8 This belief system in effect, clouds any written records that might have survived with Tutankhamen's treasure. Two artifacts did survive with his treasure, which serve as an obvious nudge in the correct direction of his parental lineage. "There was in the child king's tomb a small golden statuette showing Amenophis III crouching in the attitude of the solar child, as if to show his oneness with the son in whose flesh he would be reborn. This statuette, wrapped in linen and laid in a tiny coffin, was found beside a lock of Queen Tiye's hair touchingly enclosed like a mummy in its own little sarcophagus"9. Also, an alabaster pitcher with the couple's name is found elsewhere in the tomb along with various other artifacts from various members of the royal family who appear to be

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Application to Use Human Research Subjects Essay

Application to Use Human Research Subjects - Essay Example   Name and Title Dept. Phone, E-mail address 3. Non-key personnel:   Name and Title Dept. Phone, E-mail address 7. Consultants:   Name and Title Dept. Phone, E-mail address 8. The principal investigator agrees to carry out the proposed project as stated in the application and to promptly report to the Human Subjects Committee any proposed changes and/or unanticipated problems involving risks to subjects or others participating in approved project in accordance with the Liberty Way and the Confidentiality Statement. The principal investigator has access to copies of 45 CFR 46 and the Belmont Report. The principal investigator agrees to inform the Human Subjects Committee and complete all necessary reports should the principal investigator terminate association with the University. Additionally s/he agrees to maintain records and keep informed consent documents for three years after completion of the project even if the principal investigator terminates association with the University. ___________________________________ _________________________________________ Principal Investigator Signature Date ___________________________________ _________________________________________ Faculty Sponsor (If applicable) Date Submit the original request to: Liberty University Institutional Review Board, CN Suite 1582, 1971 University Blvd., Lynchburg, VA 24502. Submit also via email to APPLICATION TO USE HUMAN RESEARCH SUBJECTS 10. This project will be conducted at the following location(s): (please indicate city & state)  Liberty University Campus X Other (Specify): Charlottesville High School: Charlottesville, Virginia 11. This project will involve the following subject types: (check-mark types to be studied) X Normal Volunteers (Age 18-65)  Subjects Incapable Of Giving Consent  In Patients  Prisoners Or Institutionalized Individuals  Out Patients X Minors (Under Age 18)  Patient Controls  Over Age 65  Fetuses  University Students (PSYC De pt. subject pool __)  Cognitively Disabled  Other Potentially Elevated Risk Populations______  Physically Disabled __________________________________________  Pregnant Women Subjects Incapable of Giving Consent. 12. Do you intend to use LU students, staff or faculty as participants in your study? If you do not intend to use LU participants in your study, please check â€Å"no† and proceed directly to item 13. YES  NO X If â€Å"Yes†, please list the department and/or classes you hope to enlist and the number of participants you would like to enroll.  In order to process your request to use LU subjects, we must ensure that you have contacted the appropriate department and gained permission to collect data from them. Signature of Department Chair: ___________________________________ ____________________________ Department Chair Signature(s) Date 13. Estimated number of subjects to be enrolled in this protocol: ___15-25____________ 14. Does this project call for: ( check-mark all that apply to this study) X Use of Voice, Video, Digital, or Image Recordings?  Subject Compensation? Patients $ Volunteers $ Participant Payment Disclosure Form  Advertising For Subjects?  More Than Minimal Risk?  More Than Minimal Psychological Stress?  Alcohol Consumption? X Confidential Material (questionnaires, photos, etc.)?  Waiver of Informed Consent?  Extra Costs To The Subjects (tests, hospitalization, etc.)?  VO2 Max Exercise?

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Life of Pi Animals Essay Example for Free

Life of Pi Animals Essay Acting and speaking before THINKING, this goes back to a humans’ primitive stage. We are all animals, in the sense that we are mammals. Manifested through our psyche or personality, each animal has a different representation. From personality traits, behavior or even symbolism, animals have the ability to portray these features in humans. In Yann Martel’s Life of Pi, four distinct animals are manifested in the main character’s (Pi Patel)spirit. These four animals a zebra, which symbolizes the struggle to survive and docility, the orangutan – a nurturing mother personality, the hyena for desperation and evil, then lastly the tiger, Richard Parker which represents perseverance and companionship. When one visits the zoo, the most submissive creature there to see is the zebra. Marked with bold black and white stripes to show endurance, the zebra is still indecisive and unassertive. Relating back to Pi Patel, even from the beginning of the novel he cannot make up his mind about which religion to follow. This shows when his indetermination leads him from being a Muslim, to Hinduism, to Christianity. Also, as the hyena attacks the zebra for food, the animal strives to defend himself by thrashing about the boat. Severely wounded and painfully struggling to fight the battle, zebras determination to stay alive and survive the attack from the hyena. This is also a small wake up call to Pi who is also growing weak day in and day out while a hungry Bengal tiger sleeps only a few feet away. However the need to survive and the life of force is a character trait that the zebra and Pi Patel have in common, not to mention uncertainty.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Definition Of Motivation Business Essay

Definition Of Motivation Business Essay One of the oldest, and most difficult, areas in psychology is the fundamental problem of why people are motivated to do anything at all, and if they do something, why that and not something else. The issue is really two fold; the nature of the driving force (where it comes from: what are its properties) and the direction and maintenance of the drive (what affects does it have on individual behavior). For Westwood (1992:288), motivation, as a concept, has certain specific features: Motivation is an internal state experienced by the individual. Whilst external factors including other people, can affect a persons motivational state, it develops within the individual and is unique to that individual. The individual experiences a motivational state in a way that gives rise to a desire, intention and pressure to act. Motivation has an element of choice, intention or willingness. That is, the individual experiencing a state of arousal (externally or internally generated), responds by choosing to act in a way and at a level of intensity that they determine. Action and performance are a function, at least in part, of motivation. It is therefore important in our ability to predict and understand actions and performance. Motivation is multi-faceted. It is a complex process with several elements and the possibility of multiple determinants, options and outcomes. Individuals differ in terms of their motivational state and the factors that affect it. Furthermore, the motivational state of an individual is variable; it is different across time and across situations. (John Arnold et al, 1995) There are two types of motivation as originally identified by Hertzberg et al (1957): Intrinsic motivation-The self generated factors that influence people to behave in a particular direction. These factors include responsibility, autonomy (freedom to act), scope to use and develop skills and abilities, interesting and challenging work and opportunities for advancement. Extrinsic motivation-what is done to or for people to motivate them. This includes rewards, such as increased pay, praise, or promotion, and punishments, such as disciplinary action, withholding pay, or criticisms. 2.2 The process of motivation Motivating other people is about getting them to move in the direction you want them to go in order to achieve a result. Motivating yourself is about setting the direction independently and then taking a course of action, which will ensure that you get there. Motivation can be described as goal -directed behavior. People are motivated when they expect that a course of action is likely to lead to the attainment of a goal and a valued reward-one that satisfies their needs. But managers still have a major part to play in using their motivating skills to get people to give of their best, and to make good use of motivational processes provided by the organization. To do this it is necessary to understand the process of motivation-how it works and the different types of motivations that exist. A need -related model of the process of motivation is shown in the figure below. This suggests that motivation is initiated by the conscious or unconscious recognition of unsatisfied needs. These nee ds create wants, which are desires to achieve or obtain something. Goals are then established which is believed will satisfy these needs and wants and a behaviour pathway is selected which is expected will achieve the goal. If the goal is achieved, the need will be satisfied and the behaviour is likely to be repeated, the next time a similar need emerges. If the goal is not achieved, the action is less likely to be repeated. This process of repeating successful behaviour or actions is called reinforcement or the law of effect (Hull, 1951). It has, however, been criticized by Allport (1954) as ignoring the influence of expectations and therefore constituting hedonism of the past. (Michael Armstrong, 2001: 155). Attain Goal Need Take Action Establish Goal Figure2.1: The motivation process (Source: Michael Armstrong, 2001:155). 2.3 Approaches to motivation 2.3.1 Theory X and Theory Y Douglas Mc Gregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically negative, labeled theory X, and the other basically positive, labeled theory Y. Under Theory X, the 4 assumptions held by managers are: Employees inherently dislike work, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and display little ambitions. In contrast to these negative views the nature of human being, Mc Gregor listed 4 positive assumptions that he called Theory Y: Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. The average person can learn to accept, even seek responsibility. The ability to make innovative decision is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management position. Mc Gregor himself held to the being that Theory Y assumptions were more valid than Theory X. Therefore, he proposed such idea as participate in decision making, responsible and challenging jobs, and good go up relation as approaches that would maximize an employees job motivation. Critics of the theory: Unfortunately, there is no evidence to confirm that either set of assumptions is valid or that accepting theory y assumptions and altering ones acknowledgment will lead to more motivated workers. (Stephen P. Robins, 1993: 208) 2. 3.2 Human Relation Approach The main emphasis of the classical approach was on structure and the formal organization as the basic for achieving high levels of work performance. But during the 1920s greater attention began to be given to the social factors at work and to the behaviour of people in the organization that is human relations. The major impetus to the human relations approach came with the famous Hawthorne studies at the Western Electric company in America (1924 1932). The Hawthorne Studies have been subject to criticize and to a number of different interpretation. But however, the results are regarded; the studies have important implications for organizational structures. They generated new ideas on social interaction, output restrictions and individuals within work groups. The human relations approach marked a change in emphasis away from the precision of scientific management and led to ideas on increasing productivity by humanizing the work organization with the human relations approach, recognition was given to the importance of the informal organization which will always be seen as individuals and members of a social group, with their behaviour and attitude as the key effectiveness. (Laurie J. Mullins, 1992:59) 2.3.3 Scientific Management Approach The scientific management movement was pioneered by the American, Frederic W. Taylor. He saw workers who do manual work to be motivated by money, the greedy robot, and to be too stupid to develop the one best way of doing the task. The role of management was to analyze scientifically all the tasks to be done and then to design jobs to eliminate wasted time and motion. The application of scientific management resulted in significant productivity increases. However, the emphasis on specialization was to become one of the targets of critics of scientific management. They argued, that specialization was ultimately inefficient but, more importantly; it did not allow people to achieve their full potential at work. (Henry L. Tosi et al, 1994:9) Scientific management is often referred to as a machine theory model. It adopts an instrumental view of human behaviour together with the application of specialization and standard procedures of work. Workers were viewed less as isolated individuals and more as units of production to handle in much the same way as machines. The scientific study of work can lead to jobs becoming repetitive, boring and requiring little skills. The ideas behind scientific management have been largely discredited by subsequent management writers. There has been strong criticism of scientific as representing close management control over workers. By removing decisions about their work is cairned out, by division of labour, and by dictating precise stages and methods for every aspect of work performance, management could gain control of the actual process of work. The rationalization of production processes and division of labour tends to result in de-skilling of work, and thus may be a main strategy of ma nagement. (Laurie J. Mullins, 1992:56) 2.4 The motivation theories 2.4.1 Content theory Maslow theory Without doubt the best-known theory is of Maslow (1954). Maslow supposed that people have 5 types of needs that are activated in a hierarchical manner, and are then aroused in a specific order such that a lower order need must be satisfied before the next higher order- need is activated. Once need is met, the next highest need is the hierarchy is triggered and and so forth. Higher Order order of progression Self-actualisation needs Self-esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Psychological needs Lower Order Figure2.2: Maslows need hierarchy Source: A.H.Maslow, Motivation and Personality, 2nd edition, New York: Harper Row, 1976) Psychological needs Psychological needs are the lowest-order most basic needs and refer to satisfying fundamental biological drives such as the need for food, air, water and shelter. To satisfy these positive needs, organizations must provide employees with a salary that allows them to afford adequate living conditions e.g. food and shelter. Employees need sufficient rest breaks to allow them to meet their psychological needs. Organizations may provide exercise and physical fitness facilities for their employees, because providing such facilities may also be recognized as an attempt to help employees stay healthy by gratifying their psychological needs. Safety needs Safety needs are activated only after physiological needs are met. Safety need refer to needs for a secure, predictable, habitable, non-threatening environment free from threats of either physical or psychological harm. Organizations may provide employees with life and health insurance plans, opportunity for savings, pensions, and safety equipment and secure contracts that enable work to be performed without fear and harm. Social needs Social needs are activated after both physiological and safety needs. They refer to the need to be affiliative-to have friends, to be liked, included and accepted by other people. Friends, relations and work colleagues help meet social needs, and organizations may encourage participation in social events such as office parties, sports days, competitions which provide an opportunity for meeting these needs. Many organizations spend vast sums of money on facilitate for out-of-work hours activities for their staff so that people in the same organization, but different sections or departments, may meet, chat and affiliate. Esteem needs Esteem needs refer to a persons desire to develop self-respect and to gain the approval of others. The desires to achieve success have personal prestige and are recognized by others all fall into this category. Companies may have awards, prizes or banquets to recognize distinguished achievements. Printing articles in company newsletters describing an employees success, assigning private parking spaces, and posting signs identifying the employee of the month are all examples of things that can be done to satisfy esteem. The inflation of job titles could also be seen as an organizational attempt to boost employees self-esteem. Self-actualizations needs Self-actualization needs refer to the need for self-fulfillment-the desire to become all that one is capable of being, developing ones potential and fully realizing ones abilities. By working to their maximum creative potential, employees who are self-actualised can be an extremely valuable asset to their organizations. Individuals who have become self-actualised supposedly work at their peak, and represent the most effective use of an organizations human resources. Critics of the theory: The theory has enthusiascally applied to the world of work. However, few have been able to find evidence of the five-(or two-) their system (Mitchell Nowdgill 1976), and there is precious little evidence that needs are activated in the same order. Furthermore, it is not certain how, when or why the gratification of one stimulates or activates the next highest category (John Arnold et al, 1995). Adelfers ERG theory Growth needs Existence needs Relate dress needs Least concrete Most concrete Figure 2.3: Adelfers continuum of ERG needs. (Paul M.Muchinsky, 1993) Adelfers ERG theory is much simpler than Maslows theory, in that Adelfer specifies that there are only 3 types of needs, but that they are not necessarily activated in any specific order. Further, according to this theory any need may be activated at any time. The 3 needs specified by ERG theory are existence, relatedness, and growth. Existence needs These are material and are satisfied by environmental factors such as food, water, pay, fringe benefits, and working conditions. Relatedness needs These involve relationship with significant others, such as co-workers, superiors, subordinates, family and friends. Growth needs These involve the desire for unique personal development. They are met by developing whatever abilities and capabilities are important to the individual. Critics of the theory: ERG theory suggests that, although basic categories of need do exist, they are not exactly as specified by Maslow. The theory has not attracted as much attention as Maslow theory, but seems a reasonable modification of it. However, like Maslow theory it is potentially rather difficult to test (Furnham, 1992). Hertzbergs two-factor theory According to the two factors theory, people have two major types of needs. The first of these Hertzberg called hygiene needs, which are influenced by the physical and psychological conditions in which people work. Hertzberg called the second set of needs motivator needs, and described them as being very similar to the higher order needs in Maslows (1954) need hierarchy theory. Hertzberg at al. (1959) claimed that different types of outcomes or rewards satisfied these two types of needs. Hygiene needs were said to be satisfied by hygiene factors or dissatisfiers, such as supervision, interpersonal relation, physical working conditions, salary, company policies and administrative practices, benefits and job security. When these factors are unfavorable, the job dissatisfaction is the result. Conversely, when hygiene factors are positive, such as when worker perceive that their pay is fair and that their working conditions are good, than barriers to job satisfaction are removed. However, the fulfillment of hygiene needs cannot by itself result in job satisfaction. Unlike hygiene needs, motivation needs are fulfilled by what Hertzberg et al. (1959) called motivator factors or satisfiers such as achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility and advancement. According to the theory, the factors that lead to job satisfaction are those that satisfy an individuals need for self-actualization (self-fulfillment) in their work, and it is only from the performance of their task that individuals can enjoy the reward that will reinforce their aspirations. Compared to hygiene factors, which results in a neutral state (neither satisfied nor dissatisfied) when present, positive motivator factors result in job satisfaction. Critics of the theory: Attractive though the theory is, it has little empirical support. There is no doubt attributable to the fact that various methodological errors were introduced in the early theory-testing work. These included the real possibility that all the results were the result of classic attribution errors, such that personal failure is attributed externally (to hygiene factors) and success internally (to motivator factors). Secondly, the theory testing work was nearly all done on white-collar workers (accountants and engineers) who are hardly representive of the working population. McClellands Achievement Motivation Theory The need for achievement underlies the higher levels of Maslows hierarchy and also one of Hertzbergs motivating factors. The importance of achievement is emphasised by Mc Lellands, who has developed a theory of motivation which is noted in culture. The work of Mc Lelland is based on the concept of 3 main sets of needs and socially developed motives: The need for Affiliation The need for Power; and The need for Achievement People possess all 3 needs but the relative intensity of affiliation, power and achievement varies among individuals and different occupations. (Laurie J. Mullins, 1992: 206) Those most interested in power seeks positions of control and influence, those for whom affiliation is most important seek pleasant relationship and enjoy helping others; achievement seekers want success, fear failure, are task oriented and self-reliant. These 3 needs are not mutually exclusive. Many people are well motivated by all 3, but invariably one area is predominant. The implication of the theory in practice are that managers can identify employees who are self-motivated, those who rely more on internal incentives and those who could increase their achievement drive through training. (Shaun Tyson et al, 2000: 15) Critics of the theory: Mc Lellands theory implies an individualistic approach to the motivation of staff. The behaviour and performance of work group is as important as for individual motivation. (Laurie J. Mullins, 1992:207) 2.4.2 Process theories Equity theory Equity theories, borrowed by psychologists from economics (Adams 1965), views motivation from the perspective of the comparisons people make among themselves. It proposes that employees are motivated to maintain fair, or equitable, relationships among themselves and to change those relationships that are unfair or inequitable. Equity theory suggests that people make social comparison between themselves and others with respect to two variables-outcomes (benefits, rewards) and inputs (effort, ability). Outcomes refer to the things workers believe they and others get out of their jobs, including pay, fringe benefits or prestige. Inputs refer to the contribution employees believe they and others make to their jobs, including the amount of time worked, the amount of effort expended, the number of units produced, or the qualifications brought to the job. Not surprisingly, therefore workers may disagree about constitutes equity and inequity in the job. Equity is therefore a subjective, not objective, experience, which makes it more susceptible to being influenced by personality factors (Furnham 1992:139). Equity theory states that people compare their outcomes and inputs to those of others in the form of ratio. Specifically, they compare the ratio of their own outcomes and inputs to the ratio of other peoples outcomes and inputs, which can result in any of the 3 states: overpayment, underpayment, or equitable payment. Implication for managers: The management implications are two-fold: firstly that comparative pay and benefits between different groups, sections and levels in an organization, are a major source of motivation and demotivation; secondly, employees need to feel they are fairly dealt with -that they and their colleagues are rewarded equitably for their efforts. Critics of the theory: As one might expect, equity theory has its problems: how to deal with the concept of negative inputs; the point at which equity becomes inequity, and the belief that people prefer and value equity equality. Moreover, the theory is too individualistic. (John Arnold et al, 1995). Reinforcement theory These theories, for there are many, specify how a history of past benefits (or punishments), or reinforcements, modify behaviour so that future benefits will be secured. The direct application of behavioral modification principles to the work situation claims to provide procedures by which human performance can be shaped and altered. At the centre of behaviour modification is the concept of reinforcement contingency: the rate of performance will increase when valued outcomes (reinforcers) are made contingent on the performance. It makes no difference to the theory what the person needs, expects, values or wants, although these factors may impact on the differential power or effect of each reward (and punishment). Furthermore, people perform certain work-related acts that are subject to reinforcement (or punishment and extinction) contingencies. People work with a certain degree of effectiveness, and when a particular behavior result in a reward (there is reinforcement contingency bet ween, say, payment and work efficiency), performance improves. Learning theorists assert that all behaviour is shaped and sustained through the action of contingent reinforcement; work-related behaviours are simply special examples of this more universal phenomenon. (Furnham, 1992). Reinforcement and learning theories are among the oldest in psychology. There has long been a debate concerning the usefulness or otherwise of punishment as a strategy. Problems such as resentment and sabotage may accompany a managers use of punishment (negative reinforcement) is usually not effective, since it suppresses rather than eliminate undesirable responses. They also noted the more quickly reinforcement is given after the response, the more effective it becomes. Implication for managers: Jablonsky and De Vries (1972) have suggested the following guidelines for applying operant conditioning as a motivating technique: Avoid using punishment as a primary means of obtaining desired performance Positively reinforce desired behaviour and ignore undesired behaviour if possible. Minimize the time-lag between response and reinforcement Apply positive reinforcement frequently on a variable ratio schedule Determine environmental factors that are considered positive and negative by individual Critics of the theory: Being very practically oriented, it is very unclear what managers should do to motivate their staff if they are followers of learning theory. Sensitively, subtly and discretely applied, it works well, but sophisticated workforce is sometimes hostile to it. (John Arnold et al, 1995). Expectancy theory Expectancy theory asserts that people are mostly motivated to work when they expect they will be able to achieve and obtain the things they want from their jobs. Expectancy theory characterizes people as rational, logical and cognitive beings, who think about what they have to do to be rewarded and how much the reward means to them before they perform their jobs. Expectancy theory specifies that motivation is the result of 3 different types of beliefs cognitions that people have. These are known as: Expectancy- The belief that ones effort will result in performance Instrumentality The belief that ones performance will be rewarded Valence- The perceived value of the rewards to the recipient Employee may believe that a great deal of efforts will result in getting much accomplished, whereas others believe there are other occasions in which hard work will have little effects on how much gets done. It is possible that even if an employee works hard and performs at a high level, motivation may falter if that performance is not suitably rewarded by the organization-that is if the performance was not perceived as instrumental in bringing about the rewards. If behaviour is not explicitly rewarded, people are unlikely to repeat it. Furthermore, even if employees receive rewards based on their performance, they may be poorly motivated if those so-called rewards have a low valence to them. Porter and Lawler Over the years, Porter and Lawler (1968) adapted and expanded the theory. According to this model, job performance is a multiple combination of abilities and skills, effort and role perceptions. If individuals have clear role perceptions, if they possess the necessary skills and abilities, and if they are motivated to exert sufficient effort, the model suggests that they will perform well. Abilities and skills refer to both physical and psychological characteristics. Role perceptions refer to the clarity of the job description and to whether individuals know how to direct their efforts towards effectively completing the task. Those who have clear perceptions of their role perceptions apply their efforts where they will count, and perform correct behaviours. Those who have incorrect role perceptions tend to spend much of their time in unproductive efforts that do not contribute to effective job performance. Expectancy Expectancy Instrumentality Extrinsic outcome / reward Outcome / Reward Satisfaction Performance Effort Intrinsic outcome / reward Perceived equity of outcomes / rewards Job design, Organizational policies and practice Ability and traits, Role clarity organizational supports, etc Figure 2.4: Porter and Lawlers expanded expectancy model Source: Adapted from Porter and Lawler (1968) Implication for managers: Arnold et al. (1991:176) argues that, if expectancy theory were correct it would have important implications for managers wishing to ensure that employees were motivated to perform their work duties: They would need to ensure that all 3 of the following conditions were satisfied: Employees perceived that they possessed the necessary skills to do their jobs at least adequately (expectancy) Employees perceived that if they performed their jobs well, or at least adequately, they would be rewarded (instrumentality). Employees found the rewards offered for successful job performance attractive (valence). Critics of the theory: Although some specific aspects of the Expectancy theory have been supported (particularly the impact of expectancy and instrumentality on motivation), others have not (such as the contribution of valence to motivation, and the assumption that expectancy, instrumentality and valence are multiplied.) Arnold et al. (1991) note how little attention the theory pays in explaining why an individual values or does not value particular outcomes: no concept of need is involved to address this question. The theory proposes that people should ask someone how much they value something, but not bother about why they value it. (John Arnold et al, 1995) Goal Setting Theory This approach to motivation was pioneered by Ed Loche and his associate, starting in the 1960s and continuing with increasing strength and sophistication ever since. The above figure represents goal setting theory, and shows that the characteristics of a goal and attitudes towards it are thought to be influences by incentives, self-perceptions and the manner in which goals are set. In turn, those goals characteristics and attitudes are thought to determine behavioural strategies, which lead to performance within the constraints of ability knowledge of results (also called feedback) is thought to be essential to further refinement of behavioural strategies. Goal Setting Theory Participation in goal setting (Self-perceived) ability Financial incentive Goal commitment Goal acceptance Goal difficulty Goal specification Direction Intensity Persistence Strategies Knowledge of results Ability Performance Figure 2.5 Goal Setting Theory Source: Adapted from Psychology of work Behaviour by F. Landy. Copyright  © 1989, 1985, 1980, 1976. Brooks / Cole Publishing Company, a division of International Thomson Publishing Inc. By permission of the publisher. What does research say about goal setting? Some further comments can be made on the basis of research evidence first financial incentives can indeed enhance performance. Loche et al. (1981) report that this occurs either through raising goal level, or through increasing commitment to a goal. Second, and unsurprisingly, ability also affects performance. Third, research on goal setting has been carried out in a range of context and fourth, goal setting is magnificently deal about how managers can enhance the performance of their employees. Some other research has directly investigated specific potential limitations of goal setting. Earley et al. (1989) suggested that goal setting may be harmful where a task in novel and where a considerable numbers of possible strategies are available to tackle it. It seems that when people are tackling unfamiliar and complex tasks, goal setting can induce them to pay much attention to task strategy and not enough to task performance itself. Goal setting could be criticized in its early days for being a technology rather than a theory. It successfully described how goal focus behaviour, without really addressing why or through what process goals influenced behaviour. Furthermore, goal setting, suggests that people are most motivated by difficult tasks where success is (presumably) not certain. A continuing issue in goal setting concerns participation. Locke et al. (1981) concluded that there was no evidence from published research that participation in goal setting by the person attempting to achieve the goal produced better performance than if the goal was assigned to him or her by someone else. Kanfer et al. (1994) got students to attempt a simulated air traffic control task and repeated the findings that goal setting can harm performance of unfamiliar complex tasks. But they also found that giving people time to reflect on their performance between repeated attempts at similar tasks eliminate that effect. The breaks enabled them to devote intentional resources to their strategies without having simultaneously to tackle the task itself. (John Arnold et al, 1998) 2.5 Job satisfaction and motivation Locke (1976) defined job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experience. The concept generally ref

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Dowry, an Investment System

Dowry system is when the bride’s family gives goods, money, or estate to her husband and his family during marriage (E. Pauls Prine (Ed. ), 2008). This practice is mostly common in South Asia, specifically the Indian culture (E. Pauls Prine (Ed. ), 2008). On the other hand is the practice of bride price system which is where the husband gives cattle, land or goods in exchange for a woman’s hand in marriage (Schwimmer, 2002). This is mostly practiced in Africa among traditional households, where it is a price for the economic services and children a woman adds to another family (Schwimmer, 2002).Dowry and bride price are mostly practiced in exchange for the bride’s well being (E. Pauls Prine (Ed. ), 2008). There is a strong possibility that a wife might be mistreated if the dowry was not enough or satisfying for the groom’s family (E. Pauls Prine (Ed. ), 2008). Most times if the husband leaves or mistreats his wife the dowry is to be returned to her (E. Pau ls Prine (Ed. ), 2008). It is also used as a means to discharge a husband of his duties to provide well for his wife, this is most common in marriages where two young people are wedded (E.Pauls Prine (Ed. ), 2008). Although the practice of dowry from the bride’s family to the groom’s is a norm in the Indian culture it the opposite for the African culture. Where as in Africa a groom’s family gives bride price to the bride’s family. These practices seen in the context of their culture are completely normal, but seen from a modern perspective are primitive and inhumane since they resemble a system of slave exchange (Schwimmer, 2002). This is due to the over turn in the practice in the twentieth century.In South Asian culture dowries have been demanded and paid to the groom’s family conjugating the term â€Å"groom price† (Maitra, 2007). In India it is evident that there is a great inflation in dowry practice (Maitra, 2007). There was also an ev ident increase in violence against brides who were unable to fulfill the dowry payment demanded (Maitra, 2007) . This was against the fact that in 1961 there was a Dowry Prohibition Act which made it illegal to give dowries (Maitra, 2007). This has flamed many women’s rights issues due to many cases of mistreatment of brides in India (Dowry system in, 2010).It is also criticized because it is not to provide for the bride in unforeseen circumstances but to appease the groom’s family’s greed (Dowry system in, 2010). For example, it was reported by the Vancouver Sun that a bride had died and her 13-month old daughter had suffered severe burns after the bride’s family started a fire after being dissatisfied with the dowry (Nelson, 2012). The article also highlighted that such dowry dissatisfaction causes for deaths of up to 8, 000 women in India each year (Nelson, 2012).Therefore, even though there is awareness of the cause of such mistreatment against women in India it is still a norm to practice dowry which can possibly put a daughter’s life in danger. Where as in the African culture the system of bride price is most practiced. Here bride payments are mostly interpreted as the wealth received by the bride’s family which compensates for the daughter that will be of economic use and will bare children for another family (Schwimmer, 2002). Among the Dani of New Guinea there are 3 occasions where a groom must give a bride’s family valuables, such a cattle or shells (Schwimmer, 2002).First, when the groom marries the bride and she starts working on his farm; second, when the groom has sexual rights to the bride and consummates the marriage; third, when his wife bears a child (Schwimmer, 2002). In the Igbo culture of South Africa, bride price is considered as the payment to have fertile woman and if the bride is not fertile or chooses to leave the marriage before producing children she must return the wealth given to he r family by the groom (Schwimmer, 2002). With such cases of bride price many men choose marry many women and it is usually the older man that marry before the young (Schwimmer, 2002).This is due to the fact that older men have had the time to accumulate more wealth and necessary resources to pay for a bride (Schwimmer, 2002). Such practices have also raised cases where the brides have been divorced or are infertility so the families of the bride have to return the price paid to the groom (Schwimmer, 2002). For example, in the Zulu culture in South Africa there is an exchange of cattle among the groom and the bride’s father or brother (Schwimmer, 2002). This exchange is called lobola and has to be returned if the bride is divorced or cannot bare children (Schwimmer, 2002).Also, in such cultures when a son receives his first lobola from his daughter’s marriage he must give it to his father as repayment for his marriage (Schwimmer, 2002). These practices observed by outsi des would resemble much to slave exchange; morally this is wrong yet it is normally practiced in South Africa because of its wide acceptance in the culture (Schwimmer, 2002). In conclusion, from an anthropological point of view there is a cultural norm set by traditions and human greed which causes for such immoral practices of dowry and bride price.Although, these practices are considered a norm in these cultures, an outsider observing would be very shocked to see such inhumane treatment of women. This is a type of degradation which is still to this day present even with government laws which prohibit against it (Dowry system in, 2010). In order for such practices to become a rarity and not a norm a strong education system for women is important this is a suggestion and an observation an anthropologist would make with a moral leniency. Bibliography: Nelson, D. (2012, 10 16). Woman dies in dowry spat.The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved from http://www. vancouversun. com/Woman+dies+dowry+sp at/7395783/story. html Woman in coma after suicide attempt dies in sardarnagar. (2012, 10 30). Times Of India. Retrieved from http://timesofindia. indiatimes. com/city/ahmedabad/Woman-in-coma-after-suicide-attempt-dies-in-Sardarnagar/articleshow/17012521. cms Dowry system in india. In (2010). Country Facts & Information. Kwintessential Ltd. Retrieved from http://www. kwintessential. co. uk/articles/india/Dowry-System-in-India/3024 Dowry. In (2008). E. Pauls Prine (Ed. , Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/170540/dowry Maitra, S. (2007). Dowry and bride price. In (2nd ed. ). International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Retrieved from http://dept. econ. yorku. ca/~smaitra/SMaitra_IESS. pdf Schwimmer, B. (2002, 05). Bride wealth. Retrieved from http://www. umanitoba. ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/tutor/marriage/bride_wealth. html (Schwimmer, 2002) Bridewealth. In (2012). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www. britannic a. com/EBchecked/topic/79255/bridewealth

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Reaction time Essay

How fast a response can be made once he need has been recognised. By improving my reaction time I will be able to move my racket into the correct position to return my opponents shots much quicker. I would also be able to move my body into the correct position on the correct much quicker which would stop the need for over stretching for the shuttle which sometimes causes me slight injuries. This would make my play much more successful within both doubles and singles. After examining each health and skill related component of fitness and evaluating how well I did in the fitness tests I have decided to center my exercise plan round improving my muscular endurance and cardio-vascular fitness. I have chosen these because I believe that before I improve any skill related component of fitness I must have solid health related components of fitness. This is because usually health related components are directly linked with how easily a person is able to develop skilled components. For example without good muscular strength a person cannot be powerful. Muscular endurance and cardio-vascular fitness are the two that need improving foremost as I already quite a good player and therefore come up against many players which are equally matched to myself, therefore the duration of games is usually quite long and endurance is important. Relevant fitness tests to support my aims. Multi stage fitness test = this is a bleep test which participants run between two points which are 20m apart, the bleeps tell the person when to start running and when they should reach the other point. As the levels increase the beeps get closer together. This test will determine how good my muscular endurance is and whether I can run at increasing speeds with increasing tiredness. As one of my main aims is to improve my muscular endurance this test is vital to highlight any improvement made by implementing my personal exercise plan. I could not carry on after level eight; I felt this was quite good but not excellent. I would like to, with the help of my personal exercise plan, be able to achieve level 10. Pull ups = this test just involves how many times I can lift my entire body weight to lift my head above the bar. This is a relevant test as it measures the strength of my arms which is very important in the game of badminton. The strong my arms the more power I can put into my shots and the further and faster the shuttle can travel. I managed just three pull ups. This result is just below average. Improving my muscular strength would be an advantage however this is not one of my main aims of my personal exercise plan. Reaction time = this test involves putting a ruler against a wall and getting another person to hold it. I would then put my strong hand at the 50cm mark. My friend would then drop the ruler and I would have to catch it. The test of my reaction time is how far down the ruler I catch it. In badminton reaction time is also very important as reacting to the shuttles direction quickly is vital. Reaction time is very difficult to improve however nationally I scored excellent so this isn’t a major concern for improvement. Illinois Agility Test = this test is rather complicated but a great test of agility. It involves lying on the floor until the timer starts, once it has started I must stand up and run following the arrows on the diagram, each circle is a cone. This test accesses the ability to change direction at speed and the transference of weight at speed. The game of badminton can be very fast and therefore changing direction at speed can be essential. The test took me 43seconds; this is also just above average. Balance = this test involves a static balance which is timed. This is to see how long I can balance on one leg with my eyes closed. Balance in badminton is important as when stretching to reach the shuttle I need to keep my balance so not to fall. I managed to stay balanced for 20seconds this being nationally very good.

Friday, November 8, 2019

The Top 4 SAT Reading Strategies You Must Use

The Top 4 SAT Reading Strategies You Must Use SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If the Reading section of the SATis challenging for you, you may be wondering what you can do to make sure you’re extra prepared. In this article, I’ve put together our top strategies for gaining confidence and improving your scores. SAT Reading Strategy #1: Practice Eliminating Wrong Answers The fundamental strategy of SAT Reading is that there is only one totally correct answer for each question, and you will be able to eliminate all three of the others based on evidence in the passage.This is easier said than done, which is why it’s important to work on eliminating answers in practice questions before taking the SAT for real. Remember that it’s all in the details!Even with questions that don't ask about literal facts from the passage, you will still be able to find direct evidence for your answer.If an answer choice includes something that doesn’t match up with the information presented in the passage, get rid of it. Sometimes you'll have to look outside the specific lines referenced in the question for additional context. It's also helpful to answer questions in your own words first if they seem a bit confusing. That way you'll already have a rough idea of what the answer should be and are less likely to be tricked into choosing an answer that is slightly off. Many students get tripped up by answer choices that are plausible interpretations of information in the text but aren’t supported by direct evidence.Don’t let that be you! SAT ReadingStrategy #2: Find a Good Passage Reading Method Before you take the SAT, it’s important to know how you plan to attack passages so you don’t panic or run out of time on the real test.There are a few different ways you can read passages. You should test out each of them on a timed practice test to see which one feels best for you. Method #1: Skim the Passage First This is a method that works well for many people because it allows you to get a strong grasp on the main ideas of the passage before reading the questions (while also not wasting too much time). The best way to skim a long passage is to read the intro and conclusion paragraphs and then read the first and last sentences of every body paragraph.This way you’ll understand the main points the author is trying to make and be able to answer big picture questions about the passage.If you need to go back and read certain parts again to sort out details, you can do that on a question-by-question basis. Method #2: Skip Right to the Questions This might sound like a scary thing to advocate, but it actually works pretty well because the SAT gives you line numbers for most Reading questions. You can answer all the questions about details in the passage and vocabulary in context first. Sometimes the information you need isn't contained in the lines given by the question, so don't be afraid to look outside of them for more context. Once you've answered a few detail questions, you’ll probably have a good sense of the author’s main argument and be able to answer big picture and inference questions as well.If not, you can always go back and use the skimming process in Method #1 to clear up any confusion. Method #3: Read the Passage Thoroughly This is the method that most people use instinctively because it’s what they’ve been taught to do in school.It may work fine for you, but be careful to experiment and verify that you’re not losing too much time by reading closely. Some people read quickly under pressure but don't actually absorb any information. Make sure you know that you're both a quick AND thorough reader before you decide to use this method. It's ok to use shortcuts on the SAT as long as you still arrive at the right answer! Bonus Strategy #2.5: Answer Questions in a Logical Order Based on Your Reading Method Once you find the method that words best for you, you should use it to inform the order in which you answer questions on the Reading section. If you use Method #1 and skim the passage or use Method #3 and read all the way through first, answer big picture questions first while the main ideas of the passage are still fresh in your mind. If you use Method #2 and skip straight to the questions, answer detail questions first. SAT Reading Strategy #3: Understand Your Mistakes If you don’t make the effort to understand your mistakes on practice tests, you’re not going to learn from them, and you won’t improve your scores!Try to avoid saying â€Å"oh, I just made a dumb mistake†. Really get specific about why you messed up so you can fix the problem next time. Here are all the different types of mistakes you might come across on the Reading section along with information on how to address the problems associated with each of them: Types of Mistakes Type 1: Time Pressure Did you run out of time before reaching a question or answer it wrong because you were rushing?Try to figure out why you’re so pressed for time. You may need to change your passage reading strategy or do more practice tests to get used to the format. Type 2: Misunderstanding the Question Make sure you know what the question is asking before you do ANYTHING else.If questions on the SAT often confuse you, try restating them in your own words before looking for an answer.Don’t fall for the SAT's use of tricky wording. Type 3: Content Weakness If you’re making mistakes in areas where you don’t know the material, you’ll need to do some serious additional studying.For the Reading section, content weakness is usuallyless of an issue.The best way to fix this is to readmore challenging materials in your daily life. This will help you practice the reading comprehension skills you're expected to exercise on the SAT. Type 4: Carelessness Did you miss an â€Å"EXCEPT† in the question? Did you rush and not read carefully enough?Remind yourself to read carefullyand special attention to words like â€Å"least† or â€Å"except†.Try different strategies to reduce the time pressure on yourself and prevent rushing. As you take practice tests, mark every question that you’re unsure about (even the ones that you end up getting right), and come back to it later so you can analyze why it confused you.This is incredibly productive because it forces you to confront exactly what’s happening to make you lose points. Whenyou get to the real test, you won’t run into any questions that trip you up because you’ll be prepared for everything that once stumped you. Careless mistakes are the most painful mistakes. Although, judging by the state of the cone, this person was confused and tried to eat the ice cream upside down. In that case it was content weakness. SAT Reading Strategy #4: Figure Out Which Questions Are Your Problem, and Practice Them This goes hand in hand with analyzing your mistakes.Even if you know what your mistakes are, you won't be able to correct them until you get into the SAT trenches and start doing practice questions that challenge you in the same ways. If time is your problem, this might be a matter of taking more timed practice tests to get used to the pressure.If you struggle with specific question types or content areas, it’s a matter of practicing those question types over and over again until you can practically do them with your eyes closed. This means that you shouldn’t just buy an SAT review book, read it cover to cover, and expect to improve. You need to be specific about your main areas of weakness.Every time you miss or are even slightly unsure about a question on a practice test, circle it so you can come back to it later and figure out which type of question it is. By keeping track of the question types you tend to miss the most, you can detect patterns in your mistakes. Review If you want to get your best score ever on SAT Reading, there are a few key strategies you should follow to make the most of your studying: Strategy #1: Practice eliminating wrong answers Strategy #2: Find a good passage reading method Strategy #3: Make sure you understand your mistakes Strategy #4: Figure out which questions are your problem and practice them With these strategies, you should be able to correct any issues you’re having on the reading section and end up with a great score! What's Next? Now that you know the top strategies for SAT Reading, you should also check out my article on the best SAT Reading tips for more quick ways to improve your scores. If you're aiming for a perfect score on Evidence-Based Reading and Writing , take a look at our article detailing how to get an 800. Trying to decide where to start in terms of SAT Reading practice? Read this article on the best way to practice for the Reading section. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Reading lesson, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Pullman essays

Pullman essays George Pullman was born on March 3, 1831 in Brocton, New York, but was raised in Portland. His philosophy of labor was the effect of his religious upbringing in the Universalist Church. Pullmans father instilled honesty and hard work in his children. When his father became ill and passed on, George Pullman took his place as the man of the house and also took over his fathers work in construction. In 1855, Mr. Pullman acquired a lot of work in Chicago due to Lake Michigan. The land was only a few feet above the level of Lake Michigan....(Buder p.5) In order to rectify the situation, the streets and buildings had to be raised. After completing impeccable feats(Buder p.5) such as raising the Tremont Hotel and raising an entire block of stores without so much as breaking a glass, George Pullman became very popular in the construction business. After the construction was completed and there wasnt any work left, he formed a partnership with a politician named Benjamin Field and his brother Norman. Together they began constructing the perfect sleeping car. After many trials and tribulations, the Pioneer was constructed. The Pioneer received its publicity when it was first used to carry the body of president Lincoln during his funeral. After Pullman bought out his partners...he decided to incorporate,(Buder p.18) and later the Pullman Palace Car Company was formed. Between the 1860s and the 1870s, the districts of Chicago became overcrowded as the population increased. This in turn made life hard for the working class people that lived in the poorer districts. They lived in unsanitary and unhealthy conditions. Homes were built on ...unimproved lands distant from services.(Buder p.34) Working class people would sometimes turn to alcohol in order to release their frustrations concerning their living conditions. Intoxicated men would go to work an...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Music for the Stage (Wagner-Die Walkre) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Music for the Stage (Wagner-Die Walkre) - Essay Example Every author who have studied this work have noticed the rpesence of a number of leitmotifs which are short, melodious and harmonic in general through which the work gains its expressiveness and dramatic form. (Richard Wagner website, Though Wagner had never used the word leitmotif, his critics had been somewhat paranoid in attributing a number of leitmotifs distributed in the entire stretch of this work. Wagner had called them ‘melodic moments’ and described them as created â€Å" by the orchestra into a kind of guides-to-feeling through the whole labyrinthine building of the drama† (Richard Wagner website, He (Richard Wagner website, also has added that, â€Å"at their(melodious moments) hand, we become the fellow-knowers of the proufoundest secret of the poet’s aim, the immediate partners of its realisement.† Apart from â₠¬Å"communicating the emotional nuances†, leitmotifs in Die Walkure are also perceived by critics as â€Å"the building blocks of a symphonic composition† (Richard Wagner website,

Friday, November 1, 2019

What are the basic arguments of Marcuses one-dimensional man thesis To Essay

What are the basic arguments of Marcuses one-dimensional man thesis To what extent are they useful in analyzing contemporary capitalism - Essay Example wentieth century: â€Å"the calling attention to new forms of domination, repression and social control in advanced industrial societies† (Kellner, 1984: 5). Modern man, he contends, has become intellectually and spiritually complacent through his psychological dependence on the accoutrements of consumerism and the consumer society itself (repressive desublimation)—â€Å"key notions and images of literature and their fate [through the process of technological rationality [disposes of] oppositional and transcending elements in the "higher culture" (Marcuse, 1964, chapter 3: para. 1) Marcuse, equally critical of the Soviet system, offers a wide-range of criticism both of contemporary capitalism and the Soviet model of communism as it documents the parallel rise of new forms of social repression in both societies. "...totalitarian" is not only a terroristic political coordination of society, but also a non-terroristic economic-technical coordination which operates through the manipulation of needs by vested interests’ (Marcuse, 1964, chapter 1: para. 5). â€Å"Our [western] society distinguishes itself by conquering the centrifugal social forces with Technology rather than Terror, on the dual basis of an overwhelming efficiency and an increasing standard of living† which is not happiness, nor freedom, nor consistent with any social or political reality that, while the system appears reasonable is hardly so and in fact, profoundly irrational. However, it is western capitalism to which Marcuse directs his strongest and most pointed disapproval. â€Å"Herbert Marcus has displayed a prophetic vision that challenges the public to either comprehend the forces that shape their lives or limit their discourse and remain captured in a lesser dimension† (The Search for Freedom, 2001: para. 3). With the spread of capitalism through globalisation of economies, the work, ideas and arguments put forth in The One Dimensional Man are equally and perhaps more relevant, obvious and